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Tejido adiposo como glándula endocrina. Implicaciones fisiopatológicas.

Dayamí García Torres, Maricel F. Castellanos González, Raúl Cedeño Morales, Mikhail Benet Rodríguez, Illovis Ramírez Arteaga

Resumen


El tejido adiposo se considera en la actualidad como un órgano con importante función endocrina; distinguiéndose dos tipos: el pardo y el blanco. El tejido adiposo es capaz de secretar diversas sustancias conocidas como adipocinas que se encuentran implicadas en la regulación del peso corporal, en el sistema inmune, en la función vascular y en la sensibilidad insulínica. En la obesidad, principalmente visceral, se encuentran aumentadas las adipocinas proinflamatorias. Estas se asocian a la inflamación clínica y subclínica, a la insulinorresistencia, al estrés oxidativo y a la lesión endotelial; desarrollan un papel clave en el síndrome metabólico e incrementan el riesgo cardiometabólico. El objetivo de la presente revisión bibliográfica ha sido exponer las características morfofuncionales del tejido adiposo y los mecanismos que lo vinculan con la génesis de diversas enfermedades.


Palabras clave


tejido adiposo; glándulas endocrinas; obesidad abdominal; índice de masa corporal; peso corporal

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Referencias


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